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History Tractors Combine harvesters Soil preparation machinery
3000 BC The Ancient Egyptians are using two–handled ploughs
2000 BC
Farmers on the island of Crete are using ploughs with only one handle; the second hand is kept free to control the animals pulling it
ploughs with one handle, 2000 BC
ploughs with one handle, 2000 BC
800 BC Traditional scratch ploughs with an iron spike are being used in Mesopotamia
500 BC Seeder ploughs are being used in Mesopotamia (plough blades plus a seed hopper and mouldboard)
100 AD The Romans introduce the wheeled plough and rack (a cross–piece with iron teeth) to European farming
1500 Giovanni Cavallino (Italy) invents the first sowing machine of the modern age
1665 Joseph von Locatelli (Carinthia) links the plough to a sowing machine (sembrador) which plants the seeds a spoonful at a time
1700 The Flanders horticultural plough is developed with a concave mouldboard to reduce resistance
1730 Dutch blacksmiths develop an iron mouldboard with a screw–type winding mechanism in order to turn over the clods of earth completely
1731 Scotsman Jethro Tull advances the development of a sowing machine which will sow in rows: it is constructed in a similar way to an organ
In Scotland John Small builds the first plough made completely of iron
Württemberger plough, 1800
Württemberger plough, 1800
1800 Newbold & Jefferson (USA) begin mass production of iron ploughs
1830 Ernst Alban (Germany) develops the first broadcaster
1833 John Lane develops the ploughshare made of mouldboard instead of cast iron
In the USA John Deere develops the first self–cleaning plough
John–Deere–Pflug 1837
John–Deere–plough 1837
1841 The Pennach brothers (USA) patent the first seed drill based on construction principles still in use today
1850 The Wanzleber plough is introduced for deep ploughing for growing sugar beet
Introduction of the seed drill to Germany
1853 In England William Smith builds the first working steam–powered plough (traction engine, plough, winch, controlled by ropes)
German inventor Wilhelm Siedersleben constructs the first seed drill for sugar beet
1856 John Fowler makes further improvements to the steam–driven plough: two traction engines on opposite sides of the field drive a cable winch which pulls a balance plough forwards and backwards across the field (the cable plough system)
The first potato harvesters are ready for mass production in Germany
potato harvesters Neu–Ideal Germany 1900
potato harvesters Neu–Ideal Germany 1900
1907 In Germany the first motorised plough is developed by Robert Stock and Karl Gleiche
In Germany there are 2,239 steam–powered plough traction engines in use
1911 Mass production of tillage machinery (hay rakes, hay turners) starts at the International Harvester Company mbH in Neuss am Rhein with 700 employees
1910 The first prototypes of motorised tillers and motorised carrier ploughs are tested in Germany
Harry Ferguson (Ireland/Canada/USA) develops the three–point linkage for optimum power transmission from the tractor to the plough
Fordson–Erprobungsschlepper mit Ferguson–Dreipunkt–Hydraulik für den Pflug, 1922
Fordson with three–point linkage, 1922
1957 A drilling machine developed in Norway uses centrifugal force to distribute the grains – now it is possible to work fast and calibrate precise quantities of seed